J. Kugler, M. Schedlowski, K.-H. Schulz (Eds.)
How the brain and the immune system 
communicate with each other

Psychoneuroimmunology deals with the relationship between the nervous-, endocrine- and immune-system. Although pioneer work was done as early as the beginning of the century, it took until 1964 since George F. Solomon created the term ‘psychoneuroimmunology’. Over the last 15 years, psychoneuroimmunology has become a growing interdisciplinary field integrating both basic and applied sciences.

The central nervous system and the immune system have several characteristics in common. Both systems communicate at a distance, are capable of developing memory and both systems use chemicals to transfer messages. It is postulated that these systems communicate with each other as a biochemical network. Primary and secondary organs are innervated by noradrenergic nerve fibers. Hormones, neurotransmitters and neuropeptides can alter cellular and humoral immune functions via receptors expressed on immune competent cells. Immune system functions also affect brain processes: Immune responses are associated with neurophysiological and neuroendocrine activities in the brain, and cytokines such as interleukin 1 affect central nervous activities. In addition, activated lymphocytes are capable to produce endocrine factors.

All these data provide evidence that psychological factors modulate functions of the immune system via neuroendocrine messengers, and underline the significance of psychology in promoting health and recovery from disease.

Psychneuroimmunology in Germany is also strongly embedded in Medical and Biological Psychology along with disciplines such as immunology, endocrinology, pharmacology, physiology and psychiatry. The papers in this book are grouped in three sections: impact of stress on immune functions, functional relationship between the neuroendocrine- and the immune systems, and psychoeuroimmunology and disease. The papers presented here show in an impressive way the variety of research strategies in order to analyze the interactions between psychological factors, neuroendocrine processes and immunological functions in animals and humans.


C. L. Coe, G. R. Lubach, W. B. Ershler: Maternal influences on the development of immune competence in infancy

B. Günther, P. Calusing: Norepinephrine alterations in lymphoid tissue after prenatal ethanal exposure and during delayed type hypersensitivity responses

M. Schieche, G. Spangler: Biobehavioral organization in one-year-olds: Quality of mother-infant attachment and immunological and adrenocortical regulation

H. Schulz, K.-H. Schulz: Effects of psychological stress and exercise on different parameters of cytokines

H. Lötzerich, C. Peters, B. Niemeier, K. Schüle, H. G. Hoff, G. Uhlenbruck: Influence of endurance training in natural cytotoxicity and behaviour in cancer patients

R. J. Benschop, E. E. S. Nieuwenhuis, E. A. M. Tromp, G. L. R. Godaert, R. E. Ballieux, L. J. P. van Doornen: ß-Adrenergic mechanisms of changes in immunologic and cardiovascular variables induced by mental stress

M. C. Ockenfels, G. Stierle, A. A. Stone, D. Hellhammer: The effect of academic examinations on herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and adenovirus latency

F. E. Wilmers, A. König, M. Bohus: Reaction of salivary cortisol, cardiovascular, electrodermal, and cognitive-performance variables to various stressors and to reversible MAO-A inhibition

V. Gomez, G. Zimmermann, W. D. Froehlich, J. Knop: Stress, control experience, acute hormonal and immune-reactions

A. J. Husband, M. G. King, S. Gonzalez-Ariki: Regulation of immune function by non-immune pathways

D. F. Bull, M. S. Exton, M. G. King, A. J. Husband: Simultaneous conditioning of separate acute phase immune responses

A. Buske-Kirschbaum, C. Kirschbaum, D. H. Hellhammer: Conditioned modulation of NK cells in humans: Alterations of cell activity and cell number by conditioning protocols

A. Montkowski, B. Schöbitz, F. Holsboer, R. Landgraf: Interleukin-1 - an anxiolytic in rats?

M. Engelmann, R. Landgraf: Is the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus involved in the neuroendocrine - immune dialogue?

W. Wesemann, C. Hasse, K. Pohlner, H. W. Clement, N. Weiner, D. Gemsa: Effects of lightdark cycle and stress on central serotonin metabolism and on lymphocyte subpopulations

H. W. Clement, N. Weiner, J. Buschmann, D. Gemsa, W. Wesemann: Modulation of the serotoninergic neurotransmission by immune stimulants

A. B. Maffione, R. Calvello, B. Greco, L. Caradonna, M. Santalucia, G. Sarno, E. Jirillo: Immunomodulating role of benzodiazepines

M. Schedlowski, W. Hosch, R. Oberbeck, R. E. Schmidt: Catecholamines modulate cellular immune functions

F. Eggert, B. Wobst, N. Zavazava, W. Müller-Ruchholtz, R. Ferstl: Psychobiology of the immune system: behavioural factors in the maintenance of immunogenetical variability

F. Eggert, B. Wobst, C. Höller, D. Luszyk, L. Uharek, N. Zavazava, W. Müller-Ruchholtz, R. Ferstl: Olfactory expression of the MHC

K. Gärtner, J. Diekgerdes, A. Haemisch, B. Lechner, A. Weimer, T. Voss: The influence of social ranks on the endocrine stress responses and virus infection risks: Experimental studies in mice

J. Kugler: Stress, salivary immunoglobulin A and susceptibility to upper respiratory tract infection: Evidence for adaptive immunomodulation

J. Hennig, G. Gottwald, H. Herget, P. Netter: Time dependent relationships between secretory immunoglobulin A, cortisol and allergic complaints

I. Stumpf-Curio, I. Curio, O. B. Scholz: The effect of daily stress and mood on sIga: A single case study over 100 days

A. Müller, M. Hörhold, R. Bösel, A. Kage, B. F. Klapp: The effects of active music therapy on mood and immunocompetence of psychosomatic patients

J. R. Horton, U. Mitzdorf: Clinical hypnosis in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis

M. St. Rose, B. Leyendecker, A. Jörres, A. Ziegler, B. F. Klapp: Complaints and peripherally measurable cytokines in acute viral hepatitis


1995, 224 pages, ISBN 3-928057-64-2, Price:30,- Euro

Pabst Science Publishers
Eichengrund 28
D-49525 Lengerich

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